Bologna Process at KNU

Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is an intergovernmental higher education reform process that includes 49 European countries and a number of European Institutions, including EUA. Its main purpose is to enhance the quality and recognition of European higher education systems and to improve the conditions for exchange and collaboration within Europe, as well as internationally. Launched in 1998-1999, the Bologna Process established goals for reform in the participating countries, such as the three-cycle degree structure (bachelor, master’s, doctorate), and adopted shared instruments, such as the European Credits Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). When the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was announced in 2010, all participating parties agreed to continue the Bologna Process, as many of the established goals were not fully implemented in all countries. Over the years, the Bologna Process has grown into a Europe-wide policy platform for coordinated higher education reform. It addresses new topics, such as fundamental values and learning and teaching; as well as its longstanding commitments, which require continued attention.

To develop the education process at Knowledge University and upon the recommendation of the KRG ministry of higher education, Knowledge University has decided to change from Course System into Bologna Process. This is also consistent with the recent global development in higher education and facilitates student’s mobility. The university proposal to transform to Bologna process was approved by the ministry of higher education for the academic year 2020 – 2021 and the new academic year for first semester students started with the new system.

The university believes that Bologna Process is consistent with the global development of higher education and it’s a way to adapt to the market changes. The Bologna process is believed to be a gateway toward a more practical education and know-how learning process. Knowledge University also tries to build a bridge between university and market and pursue the employability of its graduates. The vision of Knowledge University in applying the Bologna Process is to become a top university in Kurdistan Region in terms of alumni employability, university-business cooperation, entrepreneurship, and competency building.

  • To build students competencies and enhance employability of KNU alumni.
  • To make students the center of education and make them responsible for their education.
  • To establish a bridge and cooperation between the university and the labor market.


The objectives of the Bologna process at Knowledge University is the following:

  • Applying student-centered learning and getting rid of the traditional teacher center learning.
  • Students become the center of education in our university.
  • Expanding learning environment and quality of education.
  • Strengthening the bridge between university and the workplace.
  • Building trust and restoring love to education and university.
  • Developing student’s competencies, skills, confidence, and self-esteem.
  • Measuring students’ performance and competencies through the ECTS system.
  • Making education fun and practical for students to enjoy the learning process and learn through experience and teamwork.
  • Designing a new curriculum to meet market needs and enhance employment opportunities for our Alumni.
  • More transparency and justice in students’ assessment through the ECTS system.
  • lifelong learning;
  • Graduate employability;
  • student-centered learning.
  • Learning by doing;
  • education, research, and innovation;
  • International cooperation and students mobility;
  • multidimensional transparency tools

The university following the MOHE-KRG recommendations equalized 1 ECTS to 27 workload hours. Students are required to complete 30 ECTS which is equivalent to 810 workload hours per semester, and 1620 w/h per academic year. Apart from taking the required ECTS, students are also required to fulfill module requirements to pass the semester.

To assess students performance, summative and formative assessments is applied. Students should go through End-of-term or midterm exams as part of summative assessment. However, formative assessment is an important part of the assessment that helps to discover what students know during the process of learning (Ex. quiz, focus group, case study analysis, group presentation, oral presentation, video presentation, assignment, student’s portfolio, learning diary...etc.)

For the first semester of the 2020 -2021 academic year, the university centralized final exam which accounts for 50% of the total marks, but decentralized the midterm exam. The rest of the marks is devoted to formative assessment in which different tools have been used. The following is the sample of assessment criteria:

Module Assessment  
Types of ActivityWeight (Marks)Week Due
Class Participation8%Daily Basis
Video Project10%3
Book Review10%11
Midterm Exam15%7
Final Exam50%15
Total100% (100 Marks) 

 To read more about the ECTS calculation Click Here

Percentage to Grade Chart  
Percentage RangeGrade
90 % - 100%Excellent
79% - 89%Very Good
70% - 78%Good
60% - 69%Adequate
50% - 59%Acceptable
Below 49%Weak/Failure

In accordance with the MOHE-KRG guidelines, students that transfer from a university applying Bologna Process into another university that applies the same system do not require equalization. However, student mobility does not happen between Knowledge University and universities that do not apply the Bologna Process as the core principle of the system.

When a student transfers from the university that applies Bologna Process to Knowledge University, no equalization is needed unless students need to take pre-requisite modules and believed to affect his/her level of performance.

  • The student needs to obtain 50% for each module to pass.
  • Students’ attendance in the final exam is not optional, but they need to conduct the final exam, even if they get 50% in the formative assessment and midterm exam. In the contrary, the student can not complete the workload hours.
  • The assessment to be done for all credits that students accumulate during the semester and to be measured with the learning outcome. If the student does not fulfill the module requirement, the required credit should be taken to complete the requirement, then he/she can pass the module. Students will not be able to achieve designed learning outcomes without completing module requirements.
  • Module leaders have the autonomy to stop students to attend the final exam, if he/she found that the student does not fulfill module requirement or the learning outcome is not achieved.
  • Students should pass the pre-requisite module to take the related module.
  • The number of ECTS students take should not exceed 30 ECTS per semester and the pre-requisite modules should be taken before related modules.
  • The university opens an intensive summer semester if the adequate number of students is available to help them fulfill module requirements.
  • Students should not pass the threshold of the 6 academic years to obtain a bachelors degree.
  • The university applies all other regulations issued by the Ministry of Higher Education in relation to the implementation of the Bologna Process.



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To read more about the Bologna Process, Visit KNU Bologna Process Website 



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